Congratulations to the winners of National YRE Competition! All participants can receive a certificate of participation. If you require one, please email us with your full name. We look forward to your entries this year!

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International Young Reporters for the Environment (YRE) Competition

3 Singapore entries from WWF National YRE Competition 2019 were awarded at the international Young Reporters for the Environment (YRE) Competition!

Name Category Award
Participant 1 {age category}, {media category} 1st prize
Participant 2 {age category}, {media category} 2nd prize
Participant 3 {age category}, {media category} Honourable Mention
11 - 14

Be The Right Change You Want to See in the World

Tham Wee Nee

CHIJ St. Nicholas Girls' School (Secondary)

Theme: Climate Action

I selected SDG 13, and linked it to climate change, as it is the topic that I am most passionate about, especially since I read the article in the first paragraph. Using data from 2 surveys, I confirmed that Singaporeans do not seem to attempt to take climate action as little know what to do to combat it. Then, I looked at Fig. 2, and considered our love for free gifts (in this case, a spider plant) and our thrifty nature (so that we will upcycle) to ensure an active response to these measures. Most of my solutions came from personal experiences, such as realising that spider plants could reproduce so easily, and my order for a Water Saving Kit. However, I highlighted that we cannot rely on the government to implement these measures, as taking many individual actions would be extremely, if not more impactful as well.

Be The Right Change You Want to See in the World

No other article had shocked me more than the one titled "Climate change: 12 years to save the planet? Make that 18 months"[1]. Starting January 2020, we will have 13 months to save our home before the impacts of climate change become irreversible. The fact that this figure can be quantified sends chills down my spine.

Tackling this vast issue of melting icebergs, altering weather patterns, inundating coastlines and increasing temperatures worldwide has to be a collective effort globally. Therefore, the United Nations has come up with Sustainable Development Goal 13, which urges nations to take climate action[2], not only to adapt to, but also loosen the grasp climate change already has on us.

It is well-known that Singapore has pledged to reduce our Emissions Intensity by 36% from 2005 levels by 2030. Therefore, our nation has worked hard on this mammoth task at hand, with government efforts to build 5 hectares of floating solar panels[3] and even to bring the percentage of green buildings here to 80% by 2030[4].

While these gargantuan efforts will very much decrease our greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, we must not forget that 7.6% of projected 2020 business-as-usual GHG emissions are by households, and 14.5%, by transport[5]. Singaporeans also drive local industries as consumers, which contribute to over 60% of emissions.

Singapore's Projected Business-As-Usual (BAU) Emissions

Figure 1: Singapore's Projected Business-As-Usual (BAU) Emissions
Taken from

Hence, I wanted to see how to get Singaporeans more actively involved in this quest to reduce their carbon footprint, and asked 20 of my family members and peers of different ages and schools for their take on this issue[6].

Unsurprisingly, 80% of respondents believed that climate change would be pressing in 2020, to the point of irreversibility. However, only a quarter knew the figures to how dire the situation is. Nonetheless, 75% were, therefore, more encouraged to take climate action.

19 of 20 respondents were willing to make at least one change to their current lifestyle

Figure 2: 19 of 20 respondents were willing to make at least one change to their current lifestyle

After learning about the limited time humans have to combat this issue and that animal agriculture exacerbates it, 35% of respondents pledged to plant greens at home, while 30% agreed to consume less electricity, eat less meat, buy minimal products, and upcycle.

In addition, the most recent biennial climate change perception survey[7] showed that 78.2% of Singaporeans would reduce their carbon footprint, even if it brought them ‘additional costs and inconveniences as consumers'. Despite this, only 48.3% knew how to address climate change, and just 79.7% attempted to reduce food wastage.

If it had been the start of 2019, I would have called climate change any kind of natural disaster. Now, given the true severity of the situation, given the knowledge that we have to act now, and given the depleting state of nature as you read this, I would call it a sinkhole. Time we waste away now is the time we waste away stopping the hole from getting deeper, the time we waste away rescuing ourselves from this eternal death pit, the time we waste away saving Earth's life from being dragged down with us in the sixth mass extinction event — the last recorded by humans.

The fuel to this fiery ‘sinkhole' is no more than GHG, stored by the world's most valuable carbon sinks. While the government giving out houseplants will not absorb all the excess carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, there are numerous benefits I have felt myself. Spider plants, low-maintenance houseplants, reproduce effortlessly through stolons, which, when in contact with soil, will mature. Even better, having multiple at home can replace air-conditioning in our warm climate, allowing us to reduce our carbon footprint drastically. Although the truth seems to be sugar-coated, the spider plants in my home have been proving it to be far from a myth, with the usage of air conditioning dropping to barely biweekly.

An offspring of the spider plant in the background, which concurrently holds a few other stolons

Figure 3: An offspring of the spider plant in the background, which concurrently holds a few other stolons

While it might not be an easy feat, pilot programmes, where the government gives out a free spider plant per household, can be held in some neighbourhoods. These houseplants can be first grown in the Singapore Botanic Gardens, where tourists and locals alike can observe them.

As for the stolons, an instruction sheet can show the steps to making simple pots from 1-litre plastic bottles and Used Beverage Cartons. Furthermore, in the spirit of upcycling, kindergarten and primary school children can learn to make upcycled products using their own waste as part of their art curriculum. While they may spread the word to their family, the younger generation will also understand that not all waste needs to be disposed of.

Furthermore, instructions on how to grow common herbs, spices and vegetables can be uploaded on government websites and advertised. To combat food wastage, the same may go for manuals on how to make Do-it-Yourself compost bins to throw food scraps and use as plant fertiliser at home. With enough funding, seeds and materials used to plant greens and create the bins could be ordered from the website of a relevant authority, much like the Water Saving Kit provided by the Public Utilities Board[8].

While the above are all driven by the government, we have to take initiative as well. The government does not necessarily have to provide us with houseplants to tend to, nor are they obliged to spoon-feed us to "go green". These days, with search engines like Ecosia, we can find instruction sheets, tutorials and online shopping sites to complete the above tasks independently. If we know the effects of irreversible climate change, why does the government need to incentivise us to do something to stop it?

2020 will be a vital year for climate action. We will be in a make-or-break situation — one that determines the future of our Earth, ourselves, and our next generation. The right change will assure us that we are steps closer to living in a home with a close-knit, balanced, and interdependent relationship between Man and Mother Nature. Let us take time from our days and learn more, do more to contribute to a goal shared internationally, and respond actively to our leaders, because only then, may we make our actions resound louder than mere words.


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15 - 18

Singapore's Plastic Use is Blindingly Excessive

Terese Anne Teoh Hui Shan

Victoria Junior College (graduated)

Theme: Responsible Consumption and Production

Singapore is witnessing growing plastic use - unlike some other nations - and recycling stays low. The difficulty of communicating the scale of the problem lies in the invisibility of plastic pollution in Singapore. But its severity cannot be overemphasised. Plastic's harm is trans-boundary in nature, since we depend on other countries to manage a large portion of our plastic scrap. Plastic manipulated our minds. Its pervasiveness has made us indifferent towards environmental issues and encourages us to consume more than our fair share. Hence this report aims to understand the public perception of Singapore's mounting plastic waste issue, and outlines the feasibility of popularly suggested solutions so that we can build an eco-conscious spirit in Singapore.

Singapore's Plastic Use is Blindingly Excessive

Figure 1. Plastic litter on the ground.
Image taken by author.

Fifteen plastic bottles a second[1]. Thirteen plastic bags per person a day[2]. Plastics recycling rate fell from 11% in 2013 to 4% in 2019[3]. The downward trend shows no sign of abating. This article reveals consumer perceptions towards plastics, and proposes solutions for Singapore to tackle excessive plastic waste.

According to a survey of 70 respondents, 85% of Singaporeans believe excessive plastic waste will become a critical issue of national security in the future[4]. 64% of this group worry about Singapore lacking land space for a new landfill. The remaining proportion feel that it needlessly expends scarce oil resources[4].

Some respondents were unconcerned, highlighting the lack of pollution resulting from plastics here, just like one Straits Times Forum Letter[5].

The efficacy of the alternative, recycling, has been debatable, especially following China's ban on imported plastic scrap, which stalled recycling worldwide. Member of Parliament (MP) Mr Louis Ng reinforced that the core message should be, "Reduce". He revealed, some of Singapore's recycling was transported to the Middle East; it would not be environmentally friendly to ship recyclables there[6].

Furthermore, plastics form the dominant fuel source for the incineration process; without plastics, the total energy generated from the waste-to-energy incineration plants would decrease[7].

Resource Sustainability Act (for Packaging Waste)

From 2020, all companies must report on packaging data and all plans to reduce, reuse or recycle the packaging. This will lay the groundwork for an Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) framework for managing packaging waste including plastics.

However, making companies responsible for the packaging they produce has been controversial. At the World Economic Forum in January 2019, green groups like Greenpeace have criticized consumer products companies for their plastic packaging, for "looking to grow in markets that can't take more plastic". On the other hand, some consumer products companies have argued that they cannot be blamed for improper plastic waste management[8].

National Recycling Programme (NRP)

This programme necessitates that all public waste collectors provide recycling bins and recycling services to all housing estates in Singapore. Recyclables are collected through this commingled recycling system, sent to the Materials Recovery Facilities (MRF) for sorting, before entering recycling facilities.

Proponents of the commingled recycling system say that this increases convenience. A 2014 Sustainability Report by Waste Management (WM) showed that when Madison, Wisconsin switched from a dual-stream recycling to a single-stream one, the amount of recyclables collected soared by 40%[9].

However, critics say that the risk of contamination runs higher in these recycling systems. A 2010 study by WRAP UK found:

"[There are] quality problems from three sources: householders putting the ‘wrong' materials into the collection, compaction of the waste which breaks glass into small pieces and tends to bind materials together, and the technical and physical capacity of the MRF to separate materials in the volumes delivered to them."[10]

In a survey that I conducted, 62% of respondents disagreed that the government campaigns in 2019 were effective[4]. Two of the most popular ideas are listed.

Making reusables as convenient an option as disposables

A survey conducted by the Ministry of Environment and Water Resources (MEWR) showed that convenience was the top reason for recycling regularly[11]. Similarly, the survey I conducted showed that for those who do not try to reduce their plastic footprint, convenience trumped other reasons. With the convenience-first culture here making reusables on par with disposables in this aspect is necessary in helping Singaporeans make the transition.

Plastic-Lite Singapore, a volunteer group, works with grassroots organizations on Bounce Bags. It is a reusable bag-sharing point for people to donate and take bags for shopping[12].

Figure 2. A Bounce Bags bag-sharing point, at Heartbeat@Bedok in 2019.
Retrieved from:

The National University of Singapore's (NUS) environmental group, Students Against the Violation of the Earth, launched Project Box to spur people to opt reusables over disposables[13]. Participants are rewarded whenever they takeaway in reusable boxes. Food or beverage discounts are awarded upon accumulating a number of points.

Still, these schemes may be ineffective. Last year, Eco-Business writer Robin Hicks wrote about the failure of the reusable box sharing initiative, Makanai Box Concept. Hicks suggests that issues included poor marketing, inappropriate location, and that the sharing economy for food containers has yet to be popularized[14].

Tax on single-use plastic

In October 2018 and August 2019, MPs called for a plastic bag tax.[15][16]

Addressing concerns of lacking bags for bin lining, MP Mr Louis Ng pointed out that a charge is not a ban, thus decreasing unnecessary consumption. Dr Amy Khor, Senior Minister of State for the Environment and Water Resources, responded that it might divert businesses to other less eco-friendly alternatives[16]. MEWR's research showed paper bags require greater land clearing and water use than plastic bags[17]. However, there has been no evidence that this would be a move taken by most businesses.

Charging for plastic bags can decrease use. In October 2015, shoppers in Britain were charged five pence for each single-use plastic bag received. That had tremendous implications: in two years, plastic use fell by 86 per cent[18]. Similar trends are noticed in Singapore. When Japanese lifestyle brand Miniso started imposing a ten cents charge per plastic bag, plastic bag use dropped by 75 per cent[19]. Miniso did not switch to other types of single-use bags.

There is ground support for the surcharge. Reports by The Straits Times show most are supportive of a tax[20]. The Fairprice Group CEO Seah Kian Peng also hopes that more corporates and retailers in Singapore would implement taxes by 2020[21].


Our plastic problem is a daily reminder of the indifference towards the environment. For many, throwing waste in excess remains a right, even if it should create wicked problems - both locally and overseas - that no one knows how to solve. Our plastic overuse spills over to recycling contamination, littering and poor e-waste recycling.

That is the most harmful impact of plastic. A common dependency; it has cemented into an individualistic mindset that stifles Singapore's green movement. To begin afresh, excessive plastic must first be swept out of the way.

[1] Straits Times (2019, November 24). Singapore's Plastic Problem: Where would your PET bottles take you?

[2] Straits Times; Tan, A. (2018, March 6): Make people pay to use plastic bags, Politics News & Top Stories

[3] A Position Paper by the Singapore Environment Council. (2019, July): Consumer Plastic and Plastic Resource Ecosystem in Singapore

[4] A survey of more than 70 respondents was conducted by this reporter. There was a door-to-door collection of results, so that respondents came from different parts of Singapore: West, Central and East. The survey also had a limited circulation via social media. Survey results

[5] Straits Times; Kwan, K. (2018, October 6): Plastic fight in Singapore pointless

[6] An interview was conducted with MP Louis Ng on 20 January 2020 by this reporter.

[7] Eco-Business; Feng, Z. (2019, June 26): Singapore's war on waste - is there a better way?

[8] Reuters; DiNapoli, J. and Bendeich, M. (2019, January 26): Consumer goods CEOs in Davos hot seat over plastic waste

[9] Circular Economy; Waste Management: 2014 Creating a Circular Economy Sustainability Report

[10] Wrap UK. (n.d.): Choosing the right recycling collection system

[11] MEWR and NEA joint news release report. (2019, April 29): 60 percent of Singaporean Households Recycle Regularly

[12] Plastic-Lite Singapore Bounce Bags:

[13] NUS Students Against the Violation of the Earth (SAVE). (2017, October 13): NUS SAVE's Lunchbox Rental Initiative @ The Deck Canteen

[14] Eco-Business; Hicks, R. (2019, December 10): Why is this reusable container scheme in Singapore not working?

[15] Straits Times; Abdullah, Z. (2018, October 2). Parliament: MP calls for carrier bag charges as a way to reduce plastic waste

[16] Channel News Asia; Mohan, M. (2019, August 2): MPs reiterate call for plastic bag surcharge; MEWR says focus is on reducing excessive use of all disposables

[17] Ministry of Environment and Water Resources and National Environment Agency: (2018) Factsheet on Findings From Life-cycle Assessment Study on Carrier Bags and Food Packaging

[18] UK Government News; Smithers, R. (2016, July 30): England's plastic bag usage drops 85% since 5p charge introduced

[19] Straits Times; Tan, A. (2017, October 5): 3 billion plastic bags a year? Cut use with mandatory tax

[20] Straits Times; Tan, A. (2019, September 16): Many consumers supportive of new plastic bag surcharge at some Fairprice outlets

[21] Channel News Asia; Ang, H. M. (2019, November 11): Plastic bag charge 'not a small step for Singapore: Fairprice Group CEO


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19 - 25

Living Zero Waste As Told By A Singaporean Eco-Warrior

Eryka Rojas

Republic Polytechnic

Theme: Sustainable Cities and Communities

I believe that my article addresses the 11th Sustainable Goal with my focus being on Singapore as a sustainable community. I addressed this topic by choosing issues and concerns within Singapore. I also mentioned existing initiatives by the government and justified these with relevant statistics that I found in The Straits Times, TODAY, and the National Environment Agency (NEA). To further aid the readers' understanding, assuming that I will be communicating to youths, I decided to contact Sandra Zhang. She's one of Singapore's few eco influencers. I felt that she added the necessary news value for being a Singaporean herself and for using several social channels as platforms for her advocacy.

Living Zero Waste As Told By A Singaporean Eco-Warrior

If you've ever stood in front of an Olympic sized swimming pool, you would know just how intimidating the depth would be to someone who isn't Joseph Schooling. That's an astonishing 2,500,000 litres worth of water.

Did you also know that just in 2019, the world produced over two billion tonnes of waste? That's 80,000 Olympic sized swimming pools!

With such shocking statistics, It's no longer a surprise that countries globally have resorted to investing on their very own sustainable efforts in the hopes of curbing a growing worldwide concern. Many more individuals have also taken it upon themselves to take responsibility for the planet's wellbeing. While some have chosen to bask in the glories of reusable metal cutleries, others have decided to take the path towards the extreme.

The zero-waste community in our humble red dot, though small, plays a crucial role in encouraging the wonders of a sustainable lifestyle to fellow Singaporeans. With a few trusty knick knacks on one hand and a purpose on the other, these environmental influencers have slowly become the local Instagram scene's eco-spos.

Singapore's Very Own Eco Warrior

Sandra Zhang is an environmental advocate who shares oodles of insights and tips revolving around living sustainably and zero-waste. The 47-year-old eco warrior covers it all - from responsible consumption habits to bite-sized do-it-yourself projects.

Affectionately known as @monoandco amongst her loyal pool of followers, Sandra has been an avid recycler since her youth. (PHOTO: Sandra Zhang)

"The concept of zero-waste was new to me then. I only picked it up after watching the documentaries, Trashed and Addicted to Plastic, eight years ago," she said.

The documentaries opened Sandra's eyes to the reality of today's ever growing and toxic global waste issue.

A modern consumer's trash does not only consist of regular food waste. More often than not, electronic waste, textile waste, and single-use plastic discards end up in landfills alongside scraps of food. In Southeast Asia, while 70% of trash is processed into recycled plastic waste, at least 30% of food contaminated trash remains in landfills to be incinerated.

Sandra recalled scenes of children scavenging and sorting out recycled plastics for profit in hazardous landfills. She also referred to the drastic impact of today's consumption habits to the planet's biodiversity.

She questioned, "Why should others suffer from the waste problem that I have personally created? Why should I leave my rubbish for someone else to take care of?"

Moving Towards a Zero Waste Singapore

In 2019, Singapore recognised the need to move towards a sustainable economy. As such, the country's very first Zero Waste Master Plan was launched to minimise unnecessary waste production.

The master plan was brought about in the hopes of creating a sustainable economy for businesses and the environment. (PHOTO:

The master plan's overarching goal is to raise the overall recycling rate to 70% and the domestic recycling rate to 30% by the year 2030. A good percentage above the current rates of 61% and 21% respectively.

Sandra shared that she is often bombarded with questions regarding the inconvenience surrounding her zero waste lifestyle. Many a time, she carries along what she refers to as an ‘eco-survival kit' consisting of nylon shopping bags, a lunchbox, reusable cutlery, and a water bottle - all in the name of reducing single-use plastic waste. She's simply become so accustomed to it that it's no longer an inconvenience.

Her zero-waste efforts revolve around the principles of reducing, reusing, and repairing.

She listed sourcing for alternatives for everyday household necessities. Cotton rounds can be substituted by cotton flannels, tea seed powder can be used in place of dishwashing liquid, and citronella essential oil can substitute mosquito repellant.

To avoid secondary plastic packaging, Sandra has turned to shopping at her trusty neighbourhood wet market. Bringing her own bags and reusable containers for dry goods such as nuts, herbs, and flour.

"I don't keep tabs on the amount of waste that I produce. I keep a blog to document my personal journey instead. A zero-waste lifestyle is not all about limitation. But rather, moderation," said Sandra.

Sandra repurposes used plastic bottles and containers to house her eco-friendly alternatives for everyday necessities such as all-purpose cleaners and toiletries. (PHOTO: Sandra Zhang)

Playing Your Part

Singapore generated a total of 949,300 tonnes of plastic waste in 2018 alone. The Straits Times reported that only 4% of this was recycled.

One thing is for certain and that is that we have a long way to go towards attaining our vision of a zero-waste nation. Without a doubt, it poses as a great challenge. But it's not entirely impossible if we diligently play our individual parts.

According to Sandra, it's as simple as opting for reusable alternatives and avoiding the use of single-use plastics. On her blog, Mono And Co, she details nifty tips and tricks and informative guides for readers like you and I.

Despite the massive influx of affirmation and encouragement, the environmental activist humbly shared that she is only happy that her platforms are inspiring a growing community of changemakers.

In the words of the Sandra: "To those who have embarked on their zero-waste journeys, we are making a great collective effort, going by how environmental issues have been making headlines. And for those who are still undecided, start with one simple eco habit. Be it a reusable bottle or shopping bag: one single-use plastic waste avoided is one less waste left on the earth."

The 47-year-old advocate is a testimony to the fact that despite the difficulties and challenges, Singaporeans can live with a waste-free lifestyle in this day and age.

According to the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the earth has until 2030 to deal with the rising threats of climate change. Though some scientists believe that it will no longer take as long before our planet becomes inhabitable.

So what are you waiting for? All it takes is for you to start making a difference.


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11 - 14

Our Future

Tan Zng Hiong and Santhiyaa Senthilkumar

School of Science and Technology, Singapore

Theme: Sustainable Cities and Communities

Our Future

The photo shows how our unsustainable consumption and improper disposal of styrofoam products will affect East Coast Park in the future. Many children come to East Coast park with their families for recreational purposes. However, we are encroaching their play areas with our litter. Our unsustainable choices will inevitably lead to long-lasting negative impacts on their future of the world they will inhabit.


15 - 18

The Metropolis Panel

Eric Liang

ITE College Central

Theme: Climate Action

The Metropolis Panel

Captured on the sunny day of Singapore, solar panels are what encourage a healthy regenerating environment that helps to produce green and environmentally friendly electricity to power our country. Marina Bay Sands is known for its amazing structures and attractions. It is one of the landmarks that uses a lot of electricity. Solar panels help to produce electricity from the light from the sun, the sun is a renewable energy that we can use as much as we like but fossil fuel can only be used once. Once the fossil fuel has been used, it will cause harmful pollution to the globe by releasing nitrogen oxides that cause global warming. By using solar panels on open spaces or rooftops in the present and the future, we will able to produce green energy and help to reduce global warming.

15 - 18


Kevia Tan

Anglo-Chinese School (Independent)

Theme: Responsible Consumption and Production


Plastic production, consumption and pollution are pressing environmental issues to be aware of and the gravity of their repercussions is real. Right now, this is happening to victims of the sea and oblivious wildlife, suffocating within the confines of plastic, struggling helplessly at the minuscule debris choking their internal functions. The reason the current plastic crisis has not been resolved is not because of our inability to do so, but due to our inability to see how it will affect us. The victims are screaming but we aren’t helping. Soon, we will succumb to the consequences of our creation unless we start making a change today. The foreboding impact of plastic crisis upon us needs to be recognised to allow ameliorative efforts to ensue - let us go green, opt for zero waste, and recycle right today.

19 - 25

Deadly Demand

Elliott James Ong

National University of Singapore

Theme: Responsible Consumption and Production

Deadly Demand

Each of these horns belongs to a critically-endangered saiga antelope. Such large stockpiles are a common sight in Singapore's Chinatown area where they are sold for around 130SGD. Singapore is one of the world's largest markets for the horn and around 19% of Chinese Singaporeans actively use antelope horn products. Called 'lin yang', it is more often sold in the form of a cooling drink to cure fevers and sore throats. Funnily enough, the horns are made of keratin, the same material that make up your fingernails and have no medicinal properties. Awareness needs to be raised to promote available alternatives to this product and save the saiga antelope from extinction.

11 - 14

Why Singapore Needs To Go Green

Leonny Ong, Pan Jiayao and Chang Wan Xuan

Six Amiga Productions

Theme: Sustainable Cities and Communities

Why Singapore Needs To Go Green

Our video addresses the issue of Singapore's rising daily temperatures and what we can do to mitigate the effects of it and global warming. Our hope for this video is that it will help Singaporeans to realise the severity of this issue and help to contribute to a more sustainable future by taking public transport and remembering the 5 R's. Singapore's current emission levels are not sustainable. If we do not change our behaviour, future generations will suffer the effects of a hotter Singapore. In fact, we are already feeling the effects. Our video also deals with the Urban Heat Island phenomenon, and why it's such a big problem.


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15 - 18

How Old Will You Be In 2050?

Amanda Chang Zi Hui

Anglo-Chinese School (Independent)

Theme: Climate Action

How Old Will You Be In 2050?

How old will you be in 2050? This question forces the climate crisis into perspective. Climate change feels like a faraway problem, fought for by Greta Thunberg and fought against by Donald Trump. We don’t realise that the effects of climate change will reach the shores of Singapore, and that we will be around to experience it personally. These changes are not happening in the distant far away future, but will happen in our lifetime. Everything we do now makes a difference, and we must take action to protect the climate. So how old will you be in 2050? And what kind of Singapore do you want to live in?


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